Characteristics of Coastal Zone
Coastal zone plays an important part of peoplesí life. As a comparison,
coastal zone represents 10% of the total earth surface but inhibited by 50%
of the population. In South East Asia, 70% of the population lives in
coastal area. In Malaysia, many earlier establishments lay spread in the
coastal zone area. Examples include Kuala Lumpur, Port Klang, Malacca, Johor
Baru and Penang. Now, all of major towns in Malaysia, and all the 14 state
capitals, lies in the coastal zone area.
Benefits of Coastal Zone
A lot of benefits can be derived from coastal zone. They serve as a purpose
of transport, food supply, livelihood, energy, medicine, as well as
recreation. Among the activity that vastly dominates the coastal zone
includes industry, agriculture, fisheries, aquaculture, poultry rearing,
urban development, residential, port and shipping, and mining.
Among economic benefits and resources that is vastly available at the
coastal zone includes fish, agriculture and poultry for food, mangrove for
construction or fuel, mining for raw material supply and industry. Its
nature pristine condition is generating tourism industry.
Naturally, coastal zone also serve as beach natural protection and spawning
area for crabs, shrimps and fish.
Issues in Coastal Zone
Due to its tremendous benefits and resources despite its limited space and
reserves, coastal zone is subjected to various threats. Among others are
overexploitation or unsustainable use of resources, habitat conversion,
siltation and land-based and sea-based pollution. Uncontrolled habitat
conversion lessens the natural area and thus, creating imbalance of
ecosystem in the area which always lead to species extinction. Pollution
comes from various sources in industry, agriculture, poultry rearing and
aquaculture. This usually arises from population stress which creating a
cheap bulk demands for various goods and services as well as contend for