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 EAS CONGRESS 2006

                                                
                                                 KNOWLEDGE CENTER

                   What is CS? Coastal Strategy Activities Good Practice
 

BEST PRACTICES

BMP is a methodologies or practice that is used to abate pollution. In general, it includes on-ground structural works and also non-structural measures such as educational approach, policy and regulatory, guidelines, maintenance, monitoring and research. The structural and non-structural measures can be combined to prevent and reduce pollution, especially pollution from the non-point sources. BMP must be tailor suit and adapt to local condition and practice as the target pollutant and its dispersal factor varies accordingly.

In current practice, many BMPs has been developed and each of them address specifically to their respective sector, i.e. BMP for fisheries, BMP for agriculture, etc. The consolidation of these BMPs and its linkage shall be viewed in a broad manner should its full implementation are to be taking place. Last but not least, legal tools are extremely important in exercising all the beautifully documented practices.


Lembaga Urus Air Selangor will adopt best practices as legal tools to prevent pollution; where non-point sources pollution is our first priority, as we have Department of Environment to control the point sources.

NPS pollution can results from runoff, or groundwater seepage from industrial, municipal, agricultural or aquaculture sites and others. It is not from a single point, such as an industrial pipe outfall. It often goes unnoticed; however it is extremely widespread and contributes towards a significant level of seriousness of our overall water pollution problem.

NPS Best Management Practices (BMP) means choices of preventive, remedial, and management measures that reduce the availability, detachment, and transport of pollutants to both ground and surface waters; and of course economical alternatives should be taken into consideration. The choices of techniques to abate NPS pollution must be based on site conditions. The performance of techniques should also be evaluated against costs for a number of items such as materials, installation and maintenance costs to be cost-effective in the long-term.

Here are some examples on major source of NPS and its general BMP that has been practiced worldwide.
                                                                                                          

   Source of NPS

BMP

Roads and Streets

            dispose of paints, solvents, and petroleum products at approved  disposal sites, not in storm drains or street gutters

            fix automobile oil and fuel leaks

            stop oil dumping on rural roads

            construct a sediment catch basin to collect storm water runoff

            reduce road construction runoff by building terraces and catch basins, and by planting cover crops (grass)

Agriculture and livestock

 

Runoff from barnyards, feedlots and cropland carries away manure, fertilizers, ammonia, pesticides, livestock waste, oil, and toxins from farm equipment, soil and sediment.

Nitrogen from fertilizers, manure, waste and ammonia turns into nitrite and nitrate and can affect water quality as well as aquatic habitats.

 

            read and follow all labels and ask for application directions before using chemicals, fertilizers, and pesticides.

            use conservation tillage, contour farming, strip cropping, and crop rotation

            institute pasture management

            leave filter strips and field borders along wetlands and streams

            use cover crops to reduce erosion and terrace areas prone to erosion

            fence waterways to reduce riparian zone impact from livestock

            construct livestock waste collection and treatment ponds for confined livestock

            Use organic fertilizers that release nutrients more slowly.

            Recycle oil, antifreeze, batteries, fertilizer, pesticides and other chemicals and materials as much as possible.

            Control runoff from exposed soil, feedlots and barnyards so that it doesn't get into drinking water, streams and lakes.

 

Logging

 

            monitor water entering and leaving cut areas

            prevent sediments from reaching streams and lakes by building terraces, catch basins, and natural filters

            leave a vegetative buffer zone in riparian areas

            maintain and restore effective watersheds

            implement a plan to reduce erosion from roads

 

Mining

 

            monitor all water entering and leaving mine sites

            intercept and reroute uncontaminated water away from contaminated areas

            construct catch basins and terraces, and plant cover crops, to catch sediment and prevent erosion

            catch and treat contaminated water

            stabilize stream channels

            stabilize mining waste areas to prevent release of materials to streams

            maintain buffer strips along streams

 

Construction

 

Construction and clearing land often put sediment in rivers and bodies of water. Oil, debris, paint and other harmful chemicals also can runoff with water and sediment from construction sites.

 

            implement erosion and sediment control plan (ESCP is always be referred as best management practices)

            plant ground cover to reduce erosion

            dispose of solvent, paint, and other wastes at approved disposal sites

            build temporary, small dikes to slow and catch runoff

            build sediment catch basins to collect construction runoff

            build earth beams and filter runoff before water enters a stream

 

Residential

 

Fertilizers, weed killer, insecticides, and fungicides, loose grass clippings and leaves, soil from exposed areas in the yard, pet droppings, poorly maintained septic systems, detergents from washing a car, common household cleaners, improper disposal of paint, oil and other chemicals.

 

 

            read labels prior to using pesticides, fertilizers or chemicals

            use nonchemical fertilizers (compost) on gardens

            dispose of household hazardous waste at approved disposal sites

            maintain septic tanks if sewers are not available

            Keep roadways, street gutters and walkways swept and clear of soil, grass and debris

            Use environmentally safe cleaning products that don't contain phosphorus or other toxic chemicals.

            Cut down on car use, check and repair oil or other leaks and take batteries and excess motor oil to auto shop for proper disposal.

            Use biological methods and traps to reduce insects, weeds and fungus instead of toxic insecticides and herbicides. Never apply pesticides or herbicides near wells. Plant grass or plants in exposed soil areas.

            Monitor and maintain septic systems for leaks and overflows.

            Pick up and properly dispose of pet droppings.

 

Aquaculture

 

Runoff from untreated aqua farm can brings along nitrogen compounds, liquid waste, chemicals and other substances that may cause water quality deterioration, both surface and groundwater.

            Harvest, stockpile and dispose of animal manure from concentrated animal feeding operations by minimize discharge of nitrogen pollutants by leaching and runoff.

            Convey aquaculture facility wastewater to settling basins or lagoon

            Convey aquaculture waters and runoff to agricultural crop lands

            Convey aquaculture waters to groundwater recharge system

            Collect and convey liquid wastes to a storage facility or treatment

            Design and construct appropriate storage or treatment basins

            Divert, collect and convey storm runoff to storage facility

            Convey and construct appropriate diversion structures

            Seal ponds and lagoons for water loss

            Close facilities in a manner to minimize the discharge of nitrogen pollutants

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